Almost eight months since the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) was elected for a second term on promises of economic development, the BJP and its ideological ally the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) have instead focused their attentions on a familiar theme – fuelling communal tensions.
This time the alliance has made an unprecedented attack on the nation’s foundational tenets: the Indian Constitution. India is currently being ruled by a regime of executive orders and polarising policies, which are being used to manoeuvre around issues of race, religion and identity.
Violent integration: Jammu and Kashmir (J&K)
On 5 August 2019, possibly one of the darkest days in India’s history, Home Minister Amit Shah tabled a motion in Parliament to abrogate Article 370 and 35A of the Indian Constitution. The move essentially stripped Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) of the degree of autonomy the region had enjoyed since its secession to India on 26 October 1947.
Continue reading “The face of Hindu Rashtra in India – Towards a majoritarian state”
On 18 November 2019, Gotabaya Rajapaksa, a former defence secretary and brother of two-term president Mahinda Rajapaksa, was sworn in as Sri Lanka’s eighth president. Representing the Sri Lanka Podujana Peramuna (SLPP) the Sinhalese-Buddhist Nationalist Party, Gotabaya received just over 52% of the vote.
Despite his apparent popularity, he is nevertheless a divisive figure in Sri Lankan politics. During his time as defence secretary from 2005 to 2015 he was accused of committing grave human rights violations and war crimes, including the establishment of military death squads, whilst simultaneously being praised by others for his part in overseeing the end of the long running civil war between the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) and the Sri Lankan government.
Support for Gotabaya came almost exclusively from Sinhalese-Buddhist areas in the south of Sri Lanka. He struggled to win votes in the north and east of the country where the majority of Sri Lanka’s Tamils and Muslims are based.
Continue reading “The Rajapaksas’ return to power means an uncertain future for Sri Lankan minorities”
“It is all of our worst fears realised … Sri Lanka is totally polarised by this result” –Hilmy Ahmed, vice-president of the Sri Lanka Muslim Council.
Sri Lanka and India are facing pivotal moments, both for their future, and the future of South Asia as a whole. Both countries’ drives towards religious hegemony have left little place for Christians and Muslims, a factor which will certainly lead to more instability and intolerance in the region.
Sri Lanka: Buddhist
Sri Lanka was the site of the 2019 Easter Sunday bombings, in
which over 250 people were killed when terrorists targeted a number of churches
and hotels across the country. In the aftermath of the bombings, there were
reports of violent attacks against Muslims and an increase in anti-Muslim
prejudice. Some reprisals against the Muslim population have been carried out
by Christians, in contrast to the previous relative harmony between the two
communities as they both battled intolerance from sections of the Sinhalese
Furthermore, Buddhist nationalist groups such as the Bodu
Bala Sena (BBS), who have been portraying Islam as a threat to both Buddhism
and Sri Lanka for years, consider their stance vindicated by the bombings.
Continue reading “A Fork in the Road: What lies ahead for religious minorities in Sri Lanka, India and South Asia?”
official results confirming the re-election of Joko Widodo as President of
Indonesia were announced on 21 May, supporters of his rival, former General Prabowo
Subianto, took to the streets. Riots led to carnage in the capital, Jakarta, with at least
six people dead. The divisions unleashed by the election
campaign were exposed in their ugliest form.
point, Indonesia’s elections had been peaceful and orderly, despite what almost
all observers describe as the most divisive campaign in the country’s recent
history. On 17 April, over 190 million people cast their votes for the
presidency and the national, regional and local legislatures, in one of the
world’s biggest and most complex democratic exercises in recent times. To
conduct such a poll, in the world’s third largest democracy and fourth most
populous nation, across the world’s largest archipelago of 17,508 islands
stretching from the Indian to the Pacific Oceans, is a significant feat.
I spent three weeks in Indonesia during the election period. I witnessed the final week of the campaign, election day itself, and the first twelve days after the elections. I travelled to four cities – Jakarta, Medan in North Sumatra, Surabaya in East Java, and Pontianak in West Kalimantan – where I met civil society activists, religious communities and government advisers. I left Indonesia with profoundly mixed feelings.
Continue reading “Indonesia’s elections reveal a nation at the crossroads between pluralism and intolerance”
Shashi Tharoor, the former Under Secretary-General of the United Nations, once described Narendra Modi as a paradoxical Prime
Minister who says
one thing and does another.
into power in 2014 on egalitarian slogans like “ache din aane wale hain” (good days are coming) and “sabka saath, sabka vikas” (togetherness
with all and development for all), Modi appealed to the corporate and middle
class groups who were already beginning to resent the Congress Party, which was
plagued with a series of corruption scandals. Posturing as the “development
visionary” while presiding as Gujarat’s Chief Minister (2001-2014), he was
fielded as the best candidate who could fix India’s decaying economy and good governance.
clearly was not the case, as the reckless almost overnight demonetization had a
drastic impact, particularly on lower income groups.
Continue reading “India: A rude awakening in an election year”
The promise of good days is far from being realised. For the religious minorities that make up approximately 16.3% of the population the last five years have been anything but favourable.